A number of the Group's accounting policies and disclosures require the determination of fair value, for both financial and non-financial assets and liabilities. Fair values have been determined for measurement and/or disclosure purposes based on the following methods. When applicable, further information about the assumptions made in determining fair values is disclosed in the notes specific to that asset or liability.
The fair value of property, plant and equipment recognized as a result of a business combination is based on market values. The market value of property is the estimated amount for which a property could be exchanged on the date of valuation between a willing buyer and a willing seller in an arm's length transaction after proper marketing wherein the parties had each acted knowledgeably, willingly. The market value of items of plant, equipment, fixtures and fittings is based on the quoted market prices for similar items.
The fair value of the brand acquired in the Superonline Uluslararası Elektronik Bilgilendirme Telekomunikasyon ve Haberlesme Hizmetleri AS business combination is based on the discounted estimated royalty payments that have been avoided as a result of the brand being owned. The fair value of customer base acquired in the Superonline business combination are valued using the multi-period excess earnings method, whereby the subject asset is valued after deducting a fair return on all other assets that are part of creating the related cash flows.
The fair value of the custom duty and VA T exemption agreement in the Belarusian Telecom business combination is based on the incremental cash flows method (cost saving approach) and this was used for the valuation analysis.
The fair value of mobile telephony licenses (GSM &UM TS) in the Belarusian Telecom business combination is based on the Greenfield (buildout) method, which is estimated to be appropriate and commonly used for the valuation of licenses, and this was used for the valuation analysis.
The fair value of other intangible assets is based on the discounted cash flows expected to be derived from the use and eventual sale of the assets.
The fair value of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, held-to-maturity investments and available-for-sale financial assets is determined by reference to their quoted bid price or over the counter market price at the reporting date. The fair value of held-to-maturity investments is determined for disclosure purposes only.
The fair values of trade and other receivables and due from related parties are estimated as the present value of future cash flows, discounted at the market rate of interest at the reporting date.
The fair value of forward exchange contracts and option contracts are based on their listed market price, if available. If a listed market price is not available, then fair value is estimated by discounting the difference between the contractual forward price and the current forward price for the residual maturity of the contract using a risk-free interest rate (based on government bonds) or option pricing models.
Fair value, which is determined for disclosure purposes, is calculated based on the present value of future principal and interest cash flows, discounted at the market rate of interest at the reporting date. For finance leases, the market rate of interest is determined by reference to similar lease agreements.
The Group measures the estimated exercise price of the financial liability originating from put options granted to non-controlling interests as the present value of estimated option redemption amount. Present value of the estimated option redemption amount is based on the fair value of estimation for the company subject to the put option.
The Group has estimated a value based on multiple approaches in grant to share purchase agreement including income approach (discounted cash flows) and market approach (comparable market multiples). The average of the values determined as at 31 August 2013, which is the exercise date of the put option, is then discounted back to 31 December 2010.